Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Final Presenation Research Paper

Nikisha Greer
Final Presentation
EDUC 7102

Throughout educational history, research does not acknowledge society ever as having special education schools until 1829 when the New England Asylum for the Blind was established. After this instance, states excluded children with disabilities from public education up until the twentieth century. With the Bill of Rights being passed in 1791, the federal government did not include education in any of the amendments, which in return became the responsibility of the state.
As the number of children with special needs increased, these children were excluded from attending public institutions. As Plessey vs. Ferguson declared separate but equal, special schools were built for particular races only. African Americans were excluded from any school or special state institutions.

Special education students and families did not receive a break until Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas; the Supreme court ruled separate but equal was unconstitutional. Essentially, a racial segregation cases, parents of children with disabilities began to file suit against their education agencies based on the decision, which stabled in principle that all children should be guaranteed an equal education opportunity (The History of IDEA, 2001).

Two landmark court cases for special education students were: PARC v. Pennsylvania and Mills v. Washington, D.C. The cases argued that it was the state’s responsibility for education students with disabilities, going against the Bill of Rights. As a result, in 1975 the federal government passed the Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act; later changed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This act guaranteed a free and appropriate education that emphasized special educated services and related services, ensured the rights of the children with disabilities and their parents, assisted states and localities to provide education for disabled children, and assessed the effectiveness of efforts to educate children with disabilities. IDEA was reauthorized in 2004 to make changes in the structure and to ensure civil rights were guaranteed.

The focus of this presentation is about the learning content in distance education for students with learning disabilities. According to most definitions, learning disabilities (LD) are a group of disorders that affect the ability to acquire or use listening, speaking, concentrating, reading, writing, reasoning, or math skills (Epstein, Grinberg, Ilovitch, Klemes, & Zuker, 2006). Education has seen tremendous advancements, with the current trend being that of learning from a distance. With this being stated, special education students also have the rights of taking classes via the internet. Special education students have many advantages and disadvantages in distance education. The advantages of special education students learning in an online setting are: the use of an assistive computerized learning environment, intelligent tutoring system, and the confidence of the students.

The assistive computerized learning environment impacted society in a tremendous way. In the second half of the twentieth century, and particularly during the 1990s, special attention and efforts were devoted to research and treatment relating to children and adults with one or more learning disabilities (Epstein, Grinberg, Ilovitch, Klemes, & Zuker, 2006). Evidence obtained from this research proved that assistive technologies, computer hardware and software, can help students overcome multiple types of learning disabilities. Assistive technology was used to help students successfully complete their online course requirements. Most assistive programs targeted students who suffered from print-related problems. One of the technologies developed to overcome students’ reading difficulties is computer programs that provide synthetic speech output, synchronized with text (Epstein, Grinberg, Ilovitch, Klemes, & Zuker, 2006). Research shows that there are multiple programs available to deliver text (AT&T’s Text to Speech & Kurzweill 3000 to name a few). It has been shown that using computer readers enhances the reading rate of individuals with dyslexia, makes reading less tiring and less stressful, and makes the time they are able to devote to reading more sustained (Epstein, Grinberg, Ilovitch, Klemes, & Zuker, 2006).

Most online learning environments offer a program called intelligent tutoring system. The intelligent tutoring system offer individualized instruction to all its students. Intelligent tutoring system follow learners in their individual approach through a problem, providing context-sensitive hints and feedback, not just on learners’ final solution, but on their intermediate step as well (Aleven, Fischer, Schworms, Stahl, & Wallace, 2003).

Online learning environments also provide special education students with a sense of confidence in their educational experience. The online environment may offer a unique social advantage as compared to the traditional classroom (Ahern, Cooper, Lan, Liu, Tallent-Runnels, & Thomas, 2006). Most special education students are shy in a face-to-face setting; they avoid attention from their instructor and peers. Online learning environments allow special education students to hide their identity and remain confident within them self.

With all good things, there are the bad. The disadvantages of special education students in an online learning environment are: learning styles of the students are not considered, no accommodations/modifications in assignments, and no support services.

The expansion of distance education opportunities surface the need for online courses to meet the needs of individuals with special needs (Horney & Keeler, 2007). Online courses are created without taking into consideration of the multiple learning styles of its students. It is the responsibility of course designers therefore to intentionally create courses that address needs and styles of all individuals, including those with disabilities (Horney & Keeler, 2007).

Research states that course instructors test drive courses in order for them to model assignments and to determine course objectives. Accommodations and modifications (as included in individualized education plans) are not considered in the development of course content and assignments. Instruction can and should be designed to be flexible enough to support the range of diverse learners, not just the “typical” student (Aplin, Grabinger, & Ponnappa-Brenner, 2008). Accommodations for those with disabilities must be located within the instruction rather than placing the onus of finding support outside of the course environment (Aplin, Grabinger, & Ponnappa-Brenner, 2008).

Students with special needs have no support within online learning environments. In on campus classes, students can find support at the disabilities office which offers tutors, note takers, extra time, and separate rooms for test taking (Aplin, Grabinger, & Ponnappa-Brenner, 2008). Without this school service, most students have to pay for outside educational services while the vast majority drops-out of school.

While it remains important to be sensitive to the cognitive and academic barriers faced by adolescents and adults with LD, systemcatic change remains the key to successful post-secondary outcomes (Gregg, 2007). In order for special needs students to be successful, they must have academic pathways that allow success. Thank you for your time and now I present to you Mr. Christopher Nelson.

Ahern, T., Cooper, S., Lan, W.Y, Liu, X., Tallent-Runnels, M.K., & Thomas, J.A. (2006). Teaching courses
online: a review of the research. Review of Educational Research 2006; 76; 93.
DOI: 10.3102/00346543076001093.

Aleven, V., Fischer, F., Schworm, S., Stahl, E., & Wallace, R. (2003). Helping seeking and help design in
interactive learning environments. Review of Educational Research 2003; 73; 277
DOI: 10.3102/00346543073003277

Aplin, C., Grabinger, R.S., Ponnappa-Brenner, G. (2008). Supporting learners with cognitive impairments
in online environments. TechTrends. 52(1), 63-69.

Epstein, A., Grinberg, N., Ilovitch, T., Klemes, J., Zuker, M. (2006). An assistive computerized learning
environment for distance learning students with learning disabilities. Online Learning, 21(1),
19-32. DOI: 10. 1080/02680510500468062

Gregg, N. (2007). Underserved and unprepared: postsecondary learning disabilities. Learning
Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(4), 219-228

Horney, M. & Keeler, C.G. (2007). Online course designs: are special needs being met? The American
Journal of Distance Education, 21(2), 61-75. DOI: 10.1080/08923640701298985

Lightner, A., Niemeyer, M., & Rosenfield, N. (2008). The history of idea (individuals with disabilities
education act). Retrieved on October 10, 2009, from

Richardson, J.T.E, (2009). The attainment and experiences of disabled students in distance education.
Distance Education. 30(1), 87-102.

Monday, November 16, 2009

Final Presenation

I placed my embed code within my blog, but I understand individuals can not see my presentation. I do apologize and will email Dr. Powell and see can he help me. Until then, would you please go to, place my name in the search tab (Nikisha Greer), click on the hyperlink that states TeacherTube-Nikisha Greer- Lilkisha20, and please view my video from there. Once again I do apologize and this is a very challenging task for me.

Sunday, November 15, 2009

Module 6

Embed for my video presentation:" FlashVars="config=" quality="high" bgcolor="#000000" width="450" height="320" name="flvplayer" align="middle" allowScriptAccess="always" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" pluginspage="" allowFullScreen="true" />

Sorry the video is so long, did not cut my background music at the end of the presenation. I tried my best, it was a very long process. Thank you it is finished. Please enjoy and provide feedback.

Monday, November 9, 2009

Module 5 Static and Dynamic Continuum

As an educator, my goal is to incorporate the best teaching methods and technologies to prepare my students for the future, in their education adventure. Dynamic technologies force learners to chanllenge themselves and think outside the box. Learners are not criticized about their opinions/views and the learner is considered an important component in their learning process. Static technologies are your average/daily technologies. Static technologies are easy to navigate and the challenge level is at a minimal.

In order for myself to move down the static-dynamic continuum, I must create challenging/intriguing lessons that move my students. Lessons should integrate higher order thinking skills, hands on activities, etc. The learning styles of the student should be the number one priority.

Static Dynamic Continuum Assignment is located on


Convergys' Dynamic Decisioning Solution

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Module 4 sources

Is a website that provides great information about the qualities of motivation and group work in an online environment. This link also provides an additional link to a book "The Journal of Distance Education Vol. 23, No. 2. This great information.

Steve Lohr

This blog explains the advantages of an online education setting vs a face-to-face education setting.

Please read these blogs and leave comments and questions.

Monday, October 26, 2009

Module 4

The information for Module 4 can be found on my wiki page. The page information is Please feel free to provide feedback. Thank you

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Story Board

My story board will be located on my wikispace. The address is

Please provide feedback.

Friday, October 9, 2009

Module 3- Learning Communities

Module 3- Learning Communities

To ensure effective assessment, it must be embedded in and aligned with the design of the course (Palloff & Pratt, 2005). Instructors should create assignments based on the learning objectives of the course. The instructor should incorporate different forms of assessment to meet the needs of every individual within the class setting (differentiated instruction).

Once again, instructors should address all learning styles. Instructors should provide frequent feedback, model or provide training on assessed material. The instructor retain the determination about what to assess, how to assess it, and how to respond to any evaluation material gathered through the reflective material submitted by students (Palloff & Pratt, 2005). Also the instructor should provide a rubric of the assignment that displays the breakdown of the grading scale.

The members should address the issue/s amongst the team. We are all adults and should handle the situation appropriately. Ask the classmate whether he or she is having problems comprehending the material or if he or she is having personal problems. Depending on the answer, the team will determine the next action.

The instructor should supervise the group’s progress and be available to prompt or assist groups that are having difficulty (Palloff & Pratt, 2005). When handling a group with problems, the instructor should allow the group members to handle the problems themselves until the situation goes over board (interventions by the group mates do not work, complete defiance by the troubled group mate, etc.). Suggest that the group explore alternatives and reach consensus (Palloff & Pratt, 2005).

The project should be broken down into equal parts. Depending on the percentage/points for each individual’s grade, the cooperating members should not be penalized. These particular members should get graded based on their parts. If the instructor wants them to complete the entire project, extra time should be granted without being penalized. The uncooperative member should receive credit for any fraction that he or she did.


Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tuesday, September 29, 2009

Module 2

Blog-Module 2
With change happening every day, the technological means, in all areas, for society had to jump on the band wagon and come up with intriguing innovative tools. With discrimination barriers no longer existing, technology components integrated in social areas of the workplace, school, and in everyday life (communication). Technologies provided accommodations and modifications to these three areas. Business offered training skills, educational institutions offered online classes to meet the demands of the working class, and social websites allowed people to connect to family and friends around the world. Technology has advanced at such a rapid rate that a person could be on a business trip in Italy and attend a board meeting back in Austin, Texas via satellite or phone without any hassles.

The internet offers all kinds of technology tools to help any individual in any area or aspect that they may need additional help or for leisure purposes. Today, an individual have the same opportunity as anyone else to surf the internet; whereas when the internet first came out, only the individuals that were able to afford the internet used its components. The internet benefits range from: communication techniques (social websites & instant messaging), educational links (, encyclopedia, & search engines), health information (any health topic or issues), and basically anything you can think of. Dr. Siemens states that individuals need to gain practical experience with new tools and society is taking him up on that challenge. Lastly, the internet has paved the way for education to be taught online and meet the needs for individuals who have barriers that might affect them in any particular way. Distance education serves the needs of not only the traditional-age college student, but also the most rapidly growing segment of the population, adult learners over the age of 35 years who have full-time jobs, families, and limited discretionary time (Johnson, 2006).

The blogs sites that include the diversity of distance education are the following:
On Open, distance, e-learning and other name confusion January 15, 2009 by Terry Anderson at
and The Evolution of Distance Learning in Higher Education by: Judith L. Johnson at


Anderson, T. (2009). On open, distance, e-learning and other name confusion. Retrieved on September
27, 2009 from

Johnson, J. L. (2006). The evolution of distance learning in higher education. Retrieved on September
27, 2009 from

Siemens, G. (n.d). The future of distance education. Retrieved September 23, 2009 from from the EDUC-7102-2 Principles of Distance Education Web site.

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

EDUC 7102-Module 1

Coleman, Foshay, Huett, Moller, and Simonson feel that distance education needs to evolve because it will better suit educators and students, by challenging the students academically at different aspects. All the authors see the pros and cons of distance education, but they place the burden on society to help sale this idea and nip any problems. It is incumbent upon all professionals with a commitment to the potential of technology and training, no matter what their theoretical or ideological bent, to think outside the box, to collaborate and to advance the common vision (Coleman, Foshay, Huett, & Moller, 2008).

I agree with the authors on the grounds of society is so uneasy when it comes to change. Distance education and its technology can present educational advantages of offering classes under difficult circumstances and can help the economic crisis in America (more students and not enough classrooms). My biggest concern is that this wonderful opportunity will get abused by becoming a dumping ground for special education students, overaged students, and behavior problems.


Coleman, C., Forshay, W.R., Huett, J., Moller, L. (2008). The evolution of distance education:
implications for instructional design on the potential of the web. TechTrends, 52(5), 63-67.
Retrieved from Walden Library Search database of Academic Search Premier, (AN) 34729472.

Saturday, September 5, 2009

Something New

This is something very new to me. I heard about blogging but was not interested in it. With the help of my new class, this is going to be very interesting to me. Please help me!!! LOL LOL hope you enjoy this process with me.